Gas Chromatography

Gas chromatography (GC), also sometimes defined as Gas-Liquid Chromatography (GLC), is a separation technique in which Gas is used as the mobile phase. Gas chromatographic separation is typically "Packed" or "Capillary", which is always carried out in a column. Gas Chromatography is a technique which is very less expensive and easier in handling and often giving adequate performance. Capillary columns especially for complex mixtures generally give far superior resolution and although more expensive are becoming widely used one. Both columns are made from non-adsorbent and chemically inert materials. For Packed columns, stainless steel and glass are the usually used materials and for Capillary columns Quartz or Fused Silica are the generally used materials.

Gas chromatography is based on partition equilibrium of analyte between a solid or viscous liquid stationary phase and a mobile gas. The most often a silicone-based material is used for the preparation and Helium is most often used material for Mobile Phase. Inside a larger metal tube commonly known as a packed column, the stationary phase is adhered to the inside of a small-diameter glass or fused-silica or a solid matrix. The most common diameter inside a column is 0.53 – 0.18mm. This technique is widely used especially in Analytical Chemistry; nevertheless the high temperatures used in GC make it unsuitable for high molecular weight biopolymers or proteins, which are frequently encountered in biochemistry. It is highly handy for use in the Petrochemical, Environmental monitoring and Remediation, and Industrial Chemical fields. It is also used extensively in the extensive research of chemistry.

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